ETA et le conflit au Pays Basque, un anachronisme ?

Dernière insurrection armée d’Europe occidentale et vestige encombrant d’un romantisme révolutionnaire dépassé pour les uns, résidu d’un groupe plus criminel que politique pour les autres, la vie et la fin de l’organisation indépendantiste Basque ETA paraissent, pour beaucoup, comme une sorte d’anachronisme. Et pourtant, avec ETA on parle ici d’une organisation clandestine qui a été non seulement au centre de l’agenda politique, policier et judiciaire espagnol – d’un régime dictatorial à une démocratie libérale européenne – mais aussi au cœur de la coopération policière et judiciaire franco-espagnole puis européenne.

Présentation d’Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet au colloque organisé par le GEPS et Politeia. GUITTET-Conference Politiea -sept.2016

Radical, radicalism and radicalisation

Deliverable AFFECT-RP4-2018. There has been considerable political and academic interest recently in studying ‘radicalisation’ and a multiplicity of research programmes aimed at developing alternative ways of engaging with the issue, evaluating strategies and suggesting policy directions. Very often, radical, radicalism and radicalisation are used as inseparable concepts, coherent entities and eloquent words. Yet, the threshold between holding ‘radical’ views and becoming violent is still the subject of many academic debates and it is not entirely certain that the notions of radical, radicalism and radicalisation really help to clarify and may even have contributed to obscure the scope of the debate. The term radicalisation is an unhelpful concept to understand the context, contents and mechanisms of recruitment, activism, violence and escalation. There is little hard evidence that proves interaction with violent and extreme content (videos and/or discourses) leads to participation in violent and extreme activities. People who become involved in violent activities are not suddenly converted to this path and then inherently stuck with a single-minded line of action. This process is gradual and it is an incremental dynamic full of uncertainty about what might be next. The unfortunately commonly-shared idea that extremism is nothing but the fatal conclusion of an ineluctable linear process is a crucial misunderstanding of the realities of violence. When besieged with emotional appeals, evocative imagery and threatening news, it is certainly not easy to disrupt this taken-for-granted assumption that violence and warfare are appropriate responses to violence. The question of whether such measures could contribute to increasing the risk of escalation of violence and the further exclusion of an already disenfranchised population seems almost forgotten.

Author: Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

Date: November 2018

Download AFFECT-RP-4-2018-Radicalisation

Protection and support of victims of terrorism – EU Policy

Deliverable AFFECT BP-01-2018

Summary – The large-scale attacks on 9/11 resulted in more attention being devoted to victims of terrorist acts. Discussions took place on how their needs could be best accommodated. The Madrid bombings in March 2004, followed by the 2005 London bombings, the 2015 attacks in Paris and the 2016 bombing in Brussels gave further impetus to this process. The rights of victims are firmly grounded not only in EU primary and secondary law, but also in Council of Europe and United Nations (UN) instru­ments, as well as in national legislation. The EU has put in place a strong legal framework to protect victims across Europe since the 1990s onward. The present Briefing Paper is a short overview of the development of EU Terrorism victims’ Rights, with a particular focus on the 2004 compensation scheme, the 2012 Victims Rights’ Directive and the 2017 Directive on Combating Terrorism.

Author: Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

Date: September 2018

Version: English

Download the report here