Radicalisation in prison

Deliverable RP-05-2018. A rather important part of the literature dedicated to radicalisation within the prison environment is largely based on the underlying assumption that prison and prison’s experience are essentially a crucial place and moment in the causal and mechanical chain leading to extreme violence.

State of emergency in France

Deliverable AFFECT BR-03-2018 

Summary – The state of emergency measures are set out in a 1955 law and are designed to be used in “cases of imminent danger resulting from serious breaches of public order, or in case of events threatening, by their nature and gravity, public disaster”. The measures give a number of exceptional powers to the authorities, including the right to set curfews, limit the movement of people and forbid mass gatherings, establish secure zones where people can be monitored and close public spaces such as theatres, bars, museums and other meeting places. It also gives more powers to the security services and police, such as the right to conduct house searches at any time without judicial oversight, enforce house arrest and confiscate certain classes of weapons, even if people hold them legally.

Author: Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

Date: December 2018

Language: French

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Prevention of radicalisation in Molenbeek

Deliverable AFFECT-RP-6-2018.

In contrast to the social, political and media-fueled stigmatisation which the district of Molenbeek and its residents have endured over the last few years, the general aim of the present research paper is to contribute to a better understanding of a thorny and still sensitive issue, and to develop a less emotionally charged and knee-jerk approach to the question of prevention of radicalisation.

Authors: Fabienne Brion, Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet & Foued Bellali

Date: November 2018

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Radical, radicalism and radicalisation

Deliverable AFFECT-RP4-2018. There has been considerable political and academic interest recently in studying ‘radicalisation’ and a multiplicity of research programmes aimed at developing alternative ways of engaging with the issue, evaluating strategies and suggesting policy directions. Very often, radical, radicalism and radicalisation are used as inseparable concepts, coherent entities and eloquent words. Yet, the threshold between holding ‘radical’ views and becoming violent is still the subject of many academic debates and it is not entirely certain that the notions of radical, radicalism and radicalisation really help to clarify and may even have contributed to obscure the scope of the debate. The term radicalisation is an unhelpful concept to understand the context, contents and mechanisms of recruitment, activism, violence and escalation. There is little hard evidence that proves interaction with violent and extreme content (videos and/or discourses) leads to participation in violent and extreme activities. People who become involved in violent activities are not suddenly converted to this path and then inherently stuck with a single-minded line of action. This process is gradual and it is an incremental dynamic full of uncertainty about what might be next. The unfortunately commonly-shared idea that extremism is nothing but the fatal conclusion of an ineluctable linear process is a crucial misunderstanding of the realities of violence. When besieged with emotional appeals, evocative imagery and threatening news, it is certainly not easy to disrupt this taken-for-granted assumption that violence and warfare are appropriate responses to violence. The question of whether such measures could contribute to increasing the risk of escalation of violence and the further exclusion of an already disenfranchised population seems almost forgotten.

Author: Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

Date: November 2018

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Protection and support of victims of terrorism – EU Policy

Deliverable AFFECT BP-01-2018

Summary – The large-scale attacks on 9/11 resulted in more attention being devoted to victims of terrorist acts. Discussions took place on how their needs could be best accommodated. The Madrid bombings in March 2004, followed by the 2005 London bombings, the 2015 attacks in Paris and the 2016 bombing in Brussels gave further impetus to this process. The rights of victims are firmly grounded not only in EU primary and secondary law, but also in Council of Europe and United Nations (UN) instru­ments, as well as in national legislation. The EU has put in place a strong legal framework to protect victims across Europe since the 1990s onward. The present Briefing Paper is a short overview of the development of EU Terrorism victims’ Rights, with a particular focus on the 2004 compensation scheme, the 2012 Victims Rights’ Directive and the 2017 Directive on Combating Terrorism.

Author: Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

Date: September 2018

Version: English

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Questioning the framework for private security terror responses

Deliverable AFFECT-RP-01-2018

Summary – The aim of this research paper is to question the growing interdependence of the private and public sectors in tackling present-day security challenges, with a specific focus on the relationship between police forces and private security companies in the fight against terrorism. Local and national representatives of public security agencies are increasingly calling upon private companies to participate in the management of various security issues, with an overall aim of considerably reducing security risk on one hand and making substantial economies on the other. Is the private sector really better placed to efficiently manage security issues and concerns? The actual security performance of private security is subject to debate.

Author: Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet

Date: March 2018

Language: English

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Women and violent extremism

The analysis of women, gender, and terrorism has been sparse and riddled with stereotypical thinking about women’s capabilities and motivations. Women are rarely associated with devotion to the cause and the longstanding belief that women assume passive and inherently less interesting roles in militant organisations is still very much alive across academic and political spheres.

Download the AFFECT-RP-1-2017-Women and violent extremism